Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Hif-Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain Proteins (Phds) in Cancer – Potential Targets for Anti-Tumor Therapy?

Version 1 : Received: 21 December 2020 / Approved: 22 December 2020 / Online: 22 December 2020 (10:46:28 CET)

How to cite: Gaete, D.; Rodriguez, D.; Watts, D.; Sormendi, S.; Chavakis, T.; Wielockx, B. Hif-Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain Proteins (Phds) in Cancer – Potential Targets for Anti-Tumor Therapy?. Preprints 2020, 2020120553 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0553.v1). Gaete, D.; Rodriguez, D.; Watts, D.; Sormendi, S.; Chavakis, T.; Wielockx, B. Hif-Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain Proteins (Phds) in Cancer – Potential Targets for Anti-Tumor Therapy?. Preprints 2020, 2020120553 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0553.v1).

Abstract

Solid tumors are typically associated with unbridled proliferation of malignant cells, accompanied by an immature and dysfunctional tumor-associated vascular network. Consequent impairment in transport of nutrients and oxygen eventually leads to a hypoxic environment wherein cells must adapt to survive and overcome these stresses. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are central transcription factors in the hypoxia response and drive the expression of a vast number of survival genes in cancer cells and in cells in the tumor microenvironment. HIFs are tightly controlled by a class of oxygen sensors, the HIF-prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs), which hydroxylate HIFs, thereby marking them for proteasomal degradation. Remarkable and intense research during the past decade has revealed that, contrary to expectations, PHDs are often overexpressed in many tumor types and that inhibition of PHDs can lead to decreased tumor growth, impaired metastasis and diminished tumor-associated immune-tolerance. Therefore, PHDs represent an attractive therapeutic target in cancer research. Multiple PHD inhibitors have been developed that have either been recently accepted in China as erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) or are currently in phase III trials. We review here the function of HIFs and PHDs in cancer and related therapeutic opportunities.

Keywords

hypoxia; tumor; PHD; HIF

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