Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Potential Effect of Oral Bacterial Community in Melanophryniscus Admirabilis (Admirable Red-Belly Toads) Conservation

Version 1 : Received: 21 December 2020 / Approved: 22 December 2020 / Online: 22 December 2020 (09:54:13 CET)

How to cite: Mann, M.B.; Prischula, J.; Castro, Í.M.S.D.; Severo, J.M.; Abadie, M.; Lima, T.M.D.F.; Caorsi, V.Z.; Borges-Martins, M.; Frazzon, J.; Frazzon, A.P.G. The Potential Effect of Oral Bacterial Community in Melanophryniscus Admirabilis (Admirable Red-Belly Toads) Conservation. Preprints 2020, 2020120547 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0547.v1). Mann, M.B.; Prischula, J.; Castro, Í.M.S.D.; Severo, J.M.; Abadie, M.; Lima, T.M.D.F.; Caorsi, V.Z.; Borges-Martins, M.; Frazzon, J.; Frazzon, A.P.G. The Potential Effect of Oral Bacterial Community in Melanophryniscus Admirabilis (Admirable Red-Belly Toads) Conservation. Preprints 2020, 2020120547 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0547.v1).

Abstract

Melanophryniscus admirabilis (admirable red-belly toad) is a microendemic and critically endangered species found exclusively along 700 meters of the Forqueta River, in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. One of the greatest concerns regarding the conservation of this species is the extensive use of pesticides in areas near their natural habitat. In recent years, the adaptation and persistence of animal species in impacted environments have been associated with microbiota. Therefore, the current study aimed to characterize the oral bacterial community of wild M. admirabilis and to address the question of how this community might contribute to toad’s adaptation in the anthropogenic environment and its general metabolic capabilities. In the present study, 11 oral samples collected from wild M. admirabilis were characterized and analyzed via high-throughput sequencing. A total of 181,350 sequences were obtained, resulting in 16 phyla, 34 classes, 39 orders, and 77 families. Proteobacteria dominated (53%) the oral microbiota of toads followed by Firmicutes (18%), Bacteroidetes (17%), and Actinobacteria (5%). No significant differences in microbial community profile from among the samples were reported, suggesting that the dietary restriction may directly influence the bacterial composition. Functional inference of microbiome was performed using PICRUSt2 and important pathways, such as xenobiotic degradation pathways to pesticides and aromatic phenolic compounds were detected, suggesting that the bacterial communities may have important roles in M. admirabilis health and survival in the anthropogenic environment. Overall, our results have important implications for the conservation and management of this microendemic and critically endangered species.

Subject Areas

high throughput sequencing; amphibian; bacteria; xenobiotic; anthropogenic action

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