Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Cryptococcal Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: From Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers to Treatment Approaches

Version 1 : Received: 20 December 2020 / Approved: 21 December 2020 / Online: 21 December 2020 (15:51:21 CET)

How to cite: Brienze, V.M.S.; André, J.C.; Liso, E.; Louis, I.V. Cryptococcal Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: From Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers to Treatment Approaches. Preprints 2020, 2020120536 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0536.v1). Brienze, V.M.S.; André, J.C.; Liso, E.; Louis, I.V. Cryptococcal Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: From Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers to Treatment Approaches. Preprints 2020, 2020120536 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0536.v1).

Abstract

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) presents as an exaggerated immune reaction that occurs during dysregulated immune restoration in immunocompromised patients in late-stage HIV infection who commenced antiretroviral treatments. Virtually, any opportunistic pathogen can provoke this type of immune restoration disorders. In this review, we focus on recent development in the identification of risk factors for Cryptococcal IRIS and on advancements in our understanding of C-IRIS immunopathogenesis. We overview new findings in blood and cerebrospinal fluid which can potentially be useful in the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis IRIS. We assess the utility of these biomarkers to identify putative host-based targets, which may justify a clinical need for improvement in monitoring a patient’s laboratory results and adjusting treatment modalities in AIDS patients co-infected with Cryptococcus.

Subject Areas

immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS); AIDS/HIV; antiretroviral therapy (ART); cryptococcal meningitis (CM); blood biomarkers; cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers.

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