Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Association Between Early-Life Gut Microbiota and Long-Term Health and Diseases

Version 1 : Received: 25 November 2020 / Approved: 27 November 2020 / Online: 27 November 2020 (11:22:07 CET)

How to cite: Sarkar, A.; Yoo, J.Y.; Valeria Ozorio Dutra, S.; Morgan, K.H.; Groer, M. The Association Between Early-Life Gut Microbiota and Long-Term Health and Diseases. Preprints 2020, 2020110683 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202011.0683.v1). Sarkar, A.; Yoo, J.Y.; Valeria Ozorio Dutra, S.; Morgan, K.H.; Groer, M. The Association Between Early-Life Gut Microbiota and Long-Term Health and Diseases. Preprints 2020, 2020110683 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202011.0683.v1).

Abstract

Abstract: Early life gut microbiota have been increasingly recognized as major contributors to short and/or long-term human health and diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human gut microbial colonization begins at birth but continues to develop a succession of taxonomic abundances for two to three years until the gut microbiota reaches adult-like diversity and proportions. Several factors, including gestational age (GA), delivery mode, birth weight, feeding types, antibiotic exposure, maternal microbiome and diet influence the diversity, abundance and function of the early life gut microbiota. Gut microbial life is essential for assisting with the digestion of food substances to release nutrients, exerting control over pathogens, stimulating or modulating the immune system and influencing many systems such as the liver, brain, and endocrine system. Microbial metabolites play multiple roles in these interactions. Furthermore, studies provide evidence supporting that imbalances of the gut microbiota in early life, referred to as dysbiosis, are associated with specific childhood or adult disease outcomes, such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, diabetes, allergic diseases, obesity, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and neurological disorders. These findings support that the human gut microbiota may play a fundamental role in the risk of acquiring diseases that may be programmed during the early life stage. In fact, it is critical to explore the role of the human gut microbiota in early life. In this review, we summarize the general understanding of the colonization and development of the gut microbiota in early life, highlighting the recent findings regarding the relationship between the gut microbiota composition and their metabolites, and immune functions, which could significantly influence long-term health and disease. We then review known pathophysiological interactions of the early gut microbiome with a number of well characterized diseases and pose potential etiological mechanisms.

Subject Areas

gut microbiota; early-life gut microbiota; gut dysbiosis; long-term health and disease; Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)

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