Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Material Similarity of Scaled Models

Version 1 : Received: 23 November 2020 / Approved: 24 November 2020 / Online: 24 November 2020 (11:04:32 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Journal reference: International Journal of Impact Engineering 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2021.103951


When different strain hardening and strain rate sensitive materials are used for scaled model and prototype, the traditional pure geometrical similarity laws of solid mechanics will fail. Although correcting the basic scaling factors of velocity, density and geometry have been developed to compensate for the material distortion in recent non-geometric scaling works, it is difficult to be widely used because of its inherent indirect (depending on the structural strain and strain rate responses) and inexact (having significant prediction errors for prototype) defects. In this paper, a framework of material similarity, based on the new suggested material dimensionless numbers and the ‘Material number vs. strain/strain-rate’ function curves, are further developed, which represents the objective requirement of similarity theory for the basic mechanical properties of materials. It is demonstrated what is similitude materials of solid mechanics and how to use the best similitude materials to overcome the non-scalabilities of materials for identical or different materials. The direct and exact solution of the basic correction factors is further obtained and therefore overcomes the previous inherent indirect and inexact defects radically. Based on the similarity evaluation of different materials of the classical constitutive models, the impacted structures of circular plate and crooked plate with strain hardening and strain rate sensitive materials are verified numerically. The results show the completely different materials can be exact similitude for various structural behaviors (strain, strain rate, stress and displacement) of time and space fields after using the best similitude materials; and the basic correction factors do not depend on the structural strain and strain rate responses. As a contrast, when the non-similitude materials are used, the similarity results are very sensitive to the selection of strain/strain-rate and often leads to failed predictions. In addition, for the material elastic and temperature effects, the proposed method is also discussed to be valid.


Material number; Similarity; Scaling; Strain hardening; Strain rate; Temperature; Structural impact


ENGINEERING, Automotive Engineering

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 26 November 2020
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Please be aware of some minor errors,the words ’similitude’ and ‘non-similitude’ are opposite in the titles of Fig. 4-5, Fig.7-8 and Fig.11-12.
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