Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Validity of the Sexual Harassment Scale in Football Refereeing

Version 1 : Received: 6 November 2020 / Approved: 9 November 2020 / Online: 9 November 2020 (10:27:35 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Sánchez, J.; Serrat, S.; Castillo, E.; Nuviala, A. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Validity of the Sexual Harassment Scale in Football Refereeing. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1374. Sánchez, J.; Serrat, S.; Castillo, E.; Nuviala, A. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Validity of the Sexual Harassment Scale in Football Refereeing. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1374.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1374
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18041374

Abstract

Inequalities between men and women in the workplace are reflected in professional sports, specifically in football refereeing. This phenomenon sometimes becomes sexual harassment, since it is a stereotypically considered male profession, in which women are a minority. In order to measure that behaviour, it is necessary to count on valid and reliable tools. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the factorial structure and the discriminant and convergent validity of the ‘sexual experiences questionnaire’, version of the Department of Defence (SEQ-DoD). Eighty-nine male football referees and ninety-four female football referees, with a mean age of 23.30 ± 4.85 years, participated in this studio conducted in Andalusia, Spain. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed using the robust maximum-likelihood estimation method. Goodness of fit was assessed and the factorial invariance was calculated to determine the stability of the model. Subsequently, the validity was confirmed. The results corroborated the validity and reliability of the questionnaire adapted to the population studied. Therefore it can be used as a research instrument.

Keywords

sexual harassment; mobbing; football referee; gender inequality; sport

Subject

SOCIAL SCIENCES, Accounting

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