Hanley, S.E.; Cooper, K.F. Sorting Nexins in Protein Homeostasis. Cells2021, 10, 17.
Hanley, S.E.; Cooper, K.F. Sorting Nexins in Protein Homeostasis. Cells 2021, 10, 17.
Sorting nexins (SNXs) are a highly conserved membrane-associated protein family that plays a role in regulating protein homeostasis. This family of proteins is unified by their characteristic phox (PX) phosphoinositides binding domain. Along with binding to membranes, this family of SNXs also comprises a diverse array of protein-protein interaction motifs that are required for cellular sorting and protein trafficking. SNXs play a role in maintaining the integrity of the proteome which is essential for regulating multiple fundamental processes such as cell cycle progression, transcription, metabolism, and stress response. To tightly regulate these processes proteins must be expressed and degraded in the correct location and at the correct time. The cell employs several proteolysis mechanisms to ensure that proteins are selectively degraded at the appropriate spatiotemporal conditions. SNXs play a role in ubiquitin-mediated protein homeostasis at multiple levels including cargo localization, recycling, degradation, and function. In this review, we will discuss the role of SNXs in three different protein homeostasis systems: endocytosis lysosomal, the ubiquitin-proteasomal, and the autophagy-lysosomal system. The highly conserved nature of this protein family by beginning with the early research on SNXs and protein trafficking in yeast and lead into their important roles in mammalian systems. Underlying the importance of SNXs in protein homeostasis, genetic defects in SNXs have been linked with a variety of human diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurogenerative disease, and viral infections.
Sorting nexins; UPS; autophagy
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