Preprint Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Copper-to-Zinc Ratio Correlates with an Inflammatory Marker in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

Version 1 : Received: 13 June 2019 / Approved: 20 June 2019 / Online: 4 July 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 13 June 2019 / Approved: 20 June 2019 / Online: 18 September 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)

How to cite: Emokpae, M.; Fatimehin, E. Copper-to-Zinc Ratio Correlates with an Inflammatory Marker in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease. Preprints 2020, 2020110088 (doi: 10.3390/sci1020055). Emokpae, M.; Fatimehin, E. Copper-to-Zinc Ratio Correlates with an Inflammatory Marker in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease. Preprints 2020, 2020110088 (doi: 10.3390/sci1020055).

Abstract

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited disorder of major health challenge in Nigeria. Micronutrients deficiencies often associated with the disorder may cause inflammation and abnormal metabolisms in the body. The copper-to-zinc ratio is a more important assessment than the concentrations of either of the metals in clinical practice. This study seeks to evaluate serum levels of c-reactive protein (CRP), copper, zinc and copper-to-zinc ratio and to correlate copper-to-zinc ratio with CRP in adult subjects with SCD. Serum copper, zinc, CRP and plasma fibrinogen were assayed in 100 confirmed SCD patients in steady clinical state and 100 age and sex matched subjects with normal haemoglobin. Serum copper and zinc were assayed by colorimetric method using reagents supplied by Centronic, Germany while CRP and fibrinogen were assayed using reagents supplied by Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA) and Anogen (Ontario, Canada), respectively. The copper to zinc ratio was calculated from serum levels of copper and zinc. The measured parameters were compared between the groups using Students t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to relate CRP with the other parameters. Serum copper, CRP, fibrinogen and copper-to-zinc ratio were significantly higher (p < 0.001) while zinc level was lower in SCD patients than controls. Serum CRP concentration correlated with copper (r = 0.10; p < 0.02), zinc (r = −0.199; p < 0.05) and Copper-to-zinc ratio (r = 0.312; p < 0.002) but the correlation between CRP and fibrinogen was not significant. Inflammatory condition may modulate copper and zinc homeostasis and copper-to-zinc ratio may be used as marker of nutritional deficiency and inflammation in SCD patients.

Subject Areas

copper; c-reactive protein; inflammation; sickle cell disease; zinc

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