Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Genetic Basis of Obesity and Related Metabolic Diseases in Humans and Companion Animals

Version 1 : Received: 13 October 2020 / Approved: 14 October 2020 / Online: 14 October 2020 (10:51:29 CEST)

How to cite: Wallis, N.; Raffan, E. The Genetic Basis of Obesity and Related Metabolic Diseases in Humans and Companion Animals. Preprints 2020, 2020100301 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0301.v1). Wallis, N.; Raffan, E. The Genetic Basis of Obesity and Related Metabolic Diseases in Humans and Companion Animals. Preprints 2020, 2020100301 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0301.v1).

Abstract

Obesity is one of the most prevalent health conditions in humans and companion animals across the world. Obesity is associated with multiple health conditions across species including premature mortality. It is therefore of importance across the fields of medicine and veterinary medicine. The regulation of body weight is a homeostatic process vulnerable to disruption by genetic and environmental factors. It is well established that the heritability of obesity is high in humans and laboratory animals, with ample evidence that the same is true in companion animals. In this review, we provide an overview of how genes link to obesity in humans, drawing on a wealth of information from laboratory animal models, and summarising the mechanisms by which obesity causes related disease. Throughout, we focus on how large-scale human studies and niche investigations of rare mutations in severely affected patients have improved our understanding of obesity biology and can inform our ability to interpret results of animal studies. For dogs, cats and horses, we review the similarities in obesity pathophysiology to humans and review those genetic studies that have been done to investigate them. Finally, we discuss how veterinary genetics may learn from humans about studying precise, nuanced phenotypes and implementing large-scale studies, but also how veterinary studies may be able to look past clinical findings to mechanistic ones and demonstrate translational benefits to human research.

Subject Areas

Obesity; Genetics; Companion Animals; Metabolic Disease; Comparative Genomics; Dogs; Cats; Horses

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