Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Leishmaniases and Schistosomiasis Comorbidity Potential in Kenya: The Need for Follow Up Studies

Version 1 : Received: 9 October 2020 / Approved: 13 October 2020 / Online: 13 October 2020 (09:44:51 CEST)

How to cite: Khayeka-Wandabwa, C.; Anjili, C.O.; Nyambati, V.C.; Kutima, L.H.; Choge, J.K.; Karani, L.K.; Kemei, W.K. Leishmaniases and Schistosomiasis Comorbidity Potential in Kenya: The Need for Follow Up Studies . Preprints 2020, 2020100268 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0268.v1). Khayeka-Wandabwa, C.; Anjili, C.O.; Nyambati, V.C.; Kutima, L.H.; Choge, J.K.; Karani, L.K.; Kemei, W.K. Leishmaniases and Schistosomiasis Comorbidity Potential in Kenya: The Need for Follow Up Studies . Preprints 2020, 2020100268 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0268.v1).

Abstract

There are potential overlapping distributions of the protozoan parasite Leishmania and the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni in eastern Africa most notably in endemic regions in the Sudan and Kenya. In murine model studies, the Th1-Th2 model of CD4+ T helper cell differentiation is a well-established paradigm for understanding the basis of protective versus pathogenic immune responses in the concomitance state that result in enhanced pathological changes and impaired parasite resolution. In complementation to the experimental studies, the concern for presages of human leishmaniases and schistosomiasis co-infections occurring is increased by their chronicity, displacement of people between endemic areas owing to conflict, climatic changes due to human activities, the spread through irrigation, pisciculture, water conservation schemes and human mobility in pursuit of economic dynamics and resources. Based on diseases prevalence, epidemiology and analyzing the associated risk factors undercurrents, several portents of comorbidity in Kenya are pinpointed. Taking into consideration the limited local resources and diminished surveillance of the areas affected by the two neglected tropical diseases, the discourse concludes that elimination of the diseases is still a challenge. There is need for pilot studies and/or elaborate field surveillance of concomitance and development strategies to mitigate the impending defy in Kenya and beyond.

Subject Areas

Concomitance; Schistosomiasis; Comorbidity; Leishmaniases; Th1 and Th2

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