Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Seasonal Changes in Size and Mite-Prevalence of a Bee Colony Exposed to Dinotefuran via Pollen Paste and Damaged by Varroa Mites

Version 1 : Received: 10 October 2020 / Approved: 12 October 2020 / Online: 12 October 2020 (16:35:43 CEST)

How to cite: Yamada, T. Seasonal Changes in Size and Mite-Prevalence of a Bee Colony Exposed to Dinotefuran via Pollen Paste and Damaged by Varroa Mites. Preprints 2020, 2020100257 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0257.v1). Yamada, T. Seasonal Changes in Size and Mite-Prevalence of a Bee Colony Exposed to Dinotefuran via Pollen Paste and Damaged by Varroa Mites. Preprints 2020, 2020100257 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0257.v1).

Abstract

Neonicotinoids, such as dinotefuran (DF), have caused a variety of problems, such as massive loss and winter failure of the bee colony, as a price for the benefit of reducing farm work, because it continues to maintain a high insecticide activity over a long period of time. In this study, a field experiment was conducted for about six months to investigate the effects of DF on bee colonies damaged by Varroa mites. This study examined the long-term changes in such as the size of bee colonies, the intake of sugar syrup (SS), intake of pollen paste (PP), which is a vehicle for administering DF, the intake of DF, the mite-prevalence of bees and the inside and outside temperatures of hive-boxes. The variation width of the inner temperature of the hive-box is less than that of the ambient temperature (Ta). The inner temperature of the hive-box is adjusted with about 30 ℃ of Ta as the boundary. If Ta is lower than 30 ℃, the inner temperature of the box is higher than Ta, and if Ta is higher than 30 ℃, it is lower than Ta. The temperature variation width of the DF-exposed colony is greater than that of the control colony. The average intake of SS per bee per day of the DF-exposed colony is more than that of the control colony. The average intake of PP per bee per day of the DF-exposed colony is almost equal to that of the control colony. These results suggest that bees do not avoid DF, and ingest PP without distinction between toxic and pesticide-free. In the period from the start of DF administration to the colony extinction, the intake of DF per colony is about 865 µg/colony, the intake per bee is 14 ng/bee, and the intake per bee per day is less than 0.1 ng/bee/day in this work. These intakes are much lower than the previous ones (60-65 ng/bee, 0.27-2.32 ng/bee/day). These discrepancies may be because attacks of mites and Japanese giant hornets hastened the colony collapse. Seasonal changes in mite-prevalence of honeybees is approximately the same regardless of the bee colonies. At the end of August (the start of attacks by Japanese giant hornets), the mite-prevalence will increase rapidly. Even if the number of bees damaged by mites turns to decrease, the mite-prevalence will continue to increase, with approaching 100% before bee colonies become extinct. In this study, it was found that the bee colony was collapsed by the intake of a smaller amount of DF due to the synergistic effect of DF and mite-damage. To prevent a bee colony collapse, not only to make an effort to minimalize the adverse effect on the bee colony of neonicotinoids such as DF with long-term residual effect and high insecticide properties, it is necessary to reduce the damage of mites as much as possible, while considering the synergistically adverse effects of neonicotinoids and miticides.

Subject Areas

seasonal change; honeybee; adult bee; capped brood; Varroa mite; colony size; dinotefuran; neonicotinoid; mite-prevalence; field experiment

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