Preprint Review Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Circular RNA, the Key for Translation

Version 1 : Received: 3 October 2020 / Approved: 5 October 2020 / Online: 5 October 2020 (13:11:35 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 6 November 2020 / Approved: 9 November 2020 / Online: 9 November 2020 (10:47:58 CET)

How to cite: Prats, A.; David, F.; Diallo, L.; Roussel, E.; Tatin, F.; Garmy-Susini, B.; Lacazette, E. Circular RNA, the Key for Translation. Preprints 2020, 2020100088 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0088.v2). Prats, A.; David, F.; Diallo, L.; Roussel, E.; Tatin, F.; Garmy-Susini, B.; Lacazette, E. Circular RNA, the Key for Translation. Preprints 2020, 2020100088 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0088.v2).

Abstract

It was thought until the 1990s that the eukaryotic translation machinery was unable to translate a circular RNA. However internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) and m6A-induced ribosome engagement sites (MIRESs) were discovered, promoting 5’end-independent translation initiation. Today a new family of so-called “non-coding” circular RNAs (circRNAs) has emerged, revealing the pivotal role of 5’end-independent translation. CircRNAs have a strong impact on translational control via their sponge function, and form a new mRNA family as they are translated into proteins with pathophysiological roles. While there is no more doubt about translation of covalently closed circRNA, the linearity of canonical mRNA is only theoretical: it has been shown for more than thirty years that polysomes exhibit a circular form and mRNA functional circularization has been demonstrated in the 1990s by the interaction of initiation factor eIF4G with poly(A) binding protein. More recently, additional mechanisms of 3’-5’ interaction have been reported, including m6A modification. Functional circularization enhances translation via ribosome recycling and acceleration of the translation initiation rate. This update of covalently and non-covalently circular mRNA translation landscape shows that RNA circular shape might be the rule for translation with an important impact on disease development and biotechnological applications.

Subject Areas

translation; ribosome; circRNA; RNA circularization; IRES; m6A; MIRES; 3’UTR

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