Working Paper Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

NMR Profiling of North Macedonian and Bulgarian Honeys for Detection of Botanical and Geographical Origin

Version 1 : Received: 26 September 2020 / Approved: 26 September 2020 / Online: 26 September 2020 (16:58:24 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Gerginova, D.; Simova, S.; Popova, M.; Stefova, M.; Stanoeva, J.P.; Bankova, V. NMR Profiling of North Macedonian and Bulgarian Honeys for Detection of Botanical and Geographical Origin. Molecules 2020, 25, 4687. Gerginova, D.; Simova, S.; Popova, M.; Stefova, M.; Stanoeva, J.P.; Bankova, V. NMR Profiling of North Macedonian and Bulgarian Honeys for Detection of Botanical and Geographical Origin. Molecules 2020, 25, 4687.

Journal reference: Molecules 2020, 25, 4687
DOI: 10.3390/molecules25204687

Abstract

Bulgaria and North Macedonia have a long history of production and use of honey, however, there is an obvious lack of systematic and in-depth research on honey from both countries. Of particular interest is the oak honeydew honey, highly valued by consumers because of its health benefits. Aim of this study was to characterize honeydew and floral honeys from Bulgaria and North Macedonia based on their NMR profiles. 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectra were measured of 16 North Macedonian and 22 Bulgarian honey samples. 25 individual substances were identified, including quinovose, which was found for the first time in honey. Chemometric methods (PCA - principal component analysis, PLS-DA - partial least squares discriminant analysis, ANOVA) were used to detect similarities and differences between samples, as well as to determine their botanical and geographical origin. Semiquantitative data on individual sugars and some other constituents were obtained; which allowed reliable classification of honey samples by botanical and geographical origin, based on chemometric approaches. The results enabled to distinguish oak honeydew honey from other honey types, and to determine the country of origin. NMR was a rapid and convenient method, avoiding the need for other more time-consuming analytical techniques.

Subject Areas

NMR spectroscopy; honey; honeydew honey; geographical origin; classification

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