Working Paper Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Temperate Propolis Has Anti-inflammatory Effects and Is a Potent Inhibitor of Nitric Oxide Formation in Macrophages

Version 1 : Received: 11 September 2020 / Approved: 14 September 2020 / Online: 14 September 2020 (00:36:37 CEST)

How to cite: Alanazi, S.; Alenzi, N.; Fearnley, J.; Harnett, W.; Watson, D. Temperate Propolis Has Anti-inflammatory Effects and Is a Potent Inhibitor of Nitric Oxide Formation in Macrophages. Preprints 2020, 2020090316 Alanazi, S.; Alenzi, N.; Fearnley, J.; Harnett, W.; Watson, D. Temperate Propolis Has Anti-inflammatory Effects and Is a Potent Inhibitor of Nitric Oxide Formation in Macrophages. Preprints 2020, 2020090316

Abstract

Previous research has shown that propolis has immunomodulatory activity. Extracts from two UK propolis samples were assessed for their anti-inflammatory activities by investigating their ability to alter the production of the cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and IL-10 from mouse bone marrow derived macrophages co-stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The propolis extracts suppressed secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 with less effect on TNFα. In addition, propolis reduced the levels of nitric oxide formed by LPS-stimulated macrophages. Metabolomic profiling was carried out by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) on a ZIC-pHILIC column. LPS increased the levels of intermediates involved in nitric oxide biosynthesis; propolis lowered many of these. Also, LPS produced an increase in itaconate and citrate and propolis treatment increased itaconate still further while greatly reducing citrate levels. Moreover, LPS treatment increased levels of GSH and intermediates in its biosynthesis while propolis treatment boosted these still further. In addition, propolis treatment greatly increased levels of UDP-sugar conjugates. Overall, the results showed that propolis extracts exert an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and by metabolic reprogramming of LPS activity in macrophages.

Subject Areas

propolis; pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines; LPS stimulation; bone marrow derived macrophages; metabolomics

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