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Novel Modular Rhodopsins from Green Algae Hold Great Potential for Cellular Optogenetic Modulation across the Biological Model Systems
: Received: 31 August 2020 / Approved: 1 September 2020 / Online: 1 September 2020 (11:50:03 CEST)
A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.
Journal reference: Life 2020
Light-gated ion channel and ion pump rhodopsins are widely used as optogenetic tools and these can control the electrically excitable cells as: (1) they are a single-component system i.e., their sensor and effector functions are encoded by the 7-transmembrane domains and (2) they show fast kinetics with small dark-thermal recovery time. In cellular signaling, a signal receptor, modulator and effector components are involved for attaining synchronous multicomponent regulation. Optical modulation of this network requires either receptor to effector encoded in a single ORF or direct modulation of the effector domain through bypassing all upstream players. Recently discovered modular rhodopsins like rhodopsin guanine cyclase (RhoGC) and rhodopsin phosphodiesterase (RhoPDE) paves the way to establish proof of concept. Light sensor coupled modular system could be expressed in a precise cell type and which holds great potential in the advancement of optogenetics 2.0. It would enable manipulating entire relevant cell signaling system. Here, we had identified 50 novels modular rhodopsins with variant rhodopsins domain and its diverse cognate signaling cascades encoded in a single ORF, which are associated with specialized functions in the cells. These novel modular algal rhodopsins have been characterized functionality based on their sequence and structural homology with previously characterized rhodopsins. Presented novel modular rhodopsins with various effector domains hold potential to expand optogenetics tool kit to regulate various cellular signaling pathways across the diverse biological model systems.
Enzymerhodopsin; Channelrhodopsins; Optogenetics; Two-component system; Cyclase; Phosphodiesterase
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