Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Cosmology with Relativistically Varying Physical Constants

Version 1 : Received: 31 July 2020 / Approved: 2 August 2020 / Online: 2 August 2020 (16:32:16 CEST)

How to cite: Gupta, R. Cosmology with Relativistically Varying Physical Constants. Preprints 2020, 2020080044. Gupta, R. Cosmology with Relativistically Varying Physical Constants. Preprints 2020, 2020080044.


We have shown that our varying physical constant model is consistent with the recently published variational approach wherein Einstein equations are modified to include the variation of the speed of light c, gravitational constant G and cosmological constant Λ using the Einstein-Hilbert action. The general constraint resulting from satisfying the local conservation laws and contracted Bianchi identities provides the freedom to choose the form of the variation of the constants as well as how their variations are related. When we choose dG/Gdt=3dc/cdt, ̇the same as in our quasi-phenomenological model, c=c0 exp(aα-1), G=G0 exp[3(aα-1)] and Λ=Λ0 exp[(a-1)], where a is the scale factor and α=1.8, we are able to confirm the success of our the model in explaining three astrometric anomalies and the null results on the variation of G and the fine structure constant. We show that the model: (a) fits the supernovae 1a observational data better than the ΛCDM model; (b) determines the first peak in the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies at multipole value of l=217.3; (c) calculates the age of the universe as 14.1 Gyr; and (d) finds the BAO acoustic scale to be 145.2 Mpc. These numbers are within less than 3% percent of the observed values and the values obtained by the ΛCDM model. Surprisingly we find that the dark-energy density is negative in a universe that has significant negative curvature and whose expansion is accelerating at a faster rate than predicted by the ΛCDM model.


cosmology theory; cosmological parameters; distances and redshifts; variable physical constants; VSL; CMB; BAO


Physical Sciences, Particle and Field Physics

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