Youssef, A.; Berckmans, D.; Norton, T. Non-Invasive PPG-Based System for Continuous Heart Rate Monitoring of Incubated Avian Embryo. Sensors2020, 20, 4560.
Youssef, A.; Berckmans, D.; Norton, T. Non-Invasive PPG-Based System for Continuous Heart Rate Monitoring of Incubated Avian Embryo. Sensors 2020, 20, 4560.
The chicken embryo is a widely used experimental animal-model in many studies such as developmental biology and to study the physiological responses and adaptation to altered environments as well as for cancer and neurobiology research. Embryonic heart rate is an important physiological variable useful as an index reflecting the embryo's natural activity and is considered one of the most difficult parameters to measure. An acceptable measurement technique of embryonic heart rate should provide a reliable cardiac signal quality while maintaining adequate gas exchange through the eggshell along the incubation and embryonic developmental period. In this paper, we presented a detailed design and methodology for a non-invasive PPG-based prototype (Egg-PPG) for real-time and continuous monitoring of embryonic heart rate during incubation. An automatic embryonic cardiac wave detection algorithm, based on normalised spectral entropy, is described. The developed algorithm successfully estimated the embryonic heart rate with 98.7% accuracy. We believe that the developed overall system presented in this paper is showing a promising solution for non-invasion, real-time monitoring of embryonic cardiac signal, which can be used in both experimental studies (e.g., developmental embryology and cardiovascular research) and in industrial incubation applications.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.