Working Paper Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Energy Vector and Time Vector in the Dirac Theory

Version 1 : Received: 16 July 2020 / Approved: 21 July 2020 / Online: 21 July 2020 (03:16:16 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 1 October 2020 / Approved: 5 October 2020 / Online: 5 October 2020 (11:07:17 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 25 May 2021 / Approved: 26 May 2021 / Online: 26 May 2021 (14:17:55 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Journal reference: Physical Science International Journal 2022
DOI: 10.9734/psij/2022/v26i430320


We have introduced a sign operator of energy, analogous to the operator helicity, but in the direction of what we call energy vector. However, this energy vector need time vector. For giving physical senses to the components of such time vector we try to explain the time dilation in special relativity in terms of them and try to relate them to the tunnelling times when an electron crosses a potential barrier.


Tunnelling time; helicity; time dilation; Dirac equation; superluminal velocity


PHYSICAL SCIENCES, Particle & Field Physics

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