Argon, Y.; Bresson, S.E.; Marzec, M.T.; Grimberg, A. Glucose-Regulated Protein 94 (GRP94): A Novel Regulator of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Production. Cells2020, 9, 1844.
Argon, Y.; Bresson, S.E.; Marzec, M.T.; Grimberg, A. Glucose-Regulated Protein 94 (GRP94): A Novel Regulator of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Production. Cells 2020, 9, 1844.
Mammals have two insulin-like growth factors (IGF) that are key mediators of somatic growth, of tissue differentiation and cellular responses to stress. Thus, the mechanisms that regulate the bioavailability of IGFs are important in both normal and aberrant development. IGF-I levels are primarily controlled via the growth hormone-IGF axis, in response to nutritional status, and also reflect metabolic diseases and cancer. One mechanism that controls IGF bioavailablity is the binding of circulating IGF to a number of binding proteins that keep IGF in a stable, but receptor non-binding state. But even before IGF is released from the cells that produce it, it undergoes an obligatory association with a ubiquitous chaperone protein, GRP94. This binding is required for secretion of a properly folded, mature IGF. This chapter reviews the known aspects of the interaction and highlights the specificity issues yet to be determined. The IGF-GRP94 interaction provides a potential novel mechanism of idiopathic short stature, involving the obligatory chaperone and not just IGF gene expression. It also provides a novel target for cancer treatment, as GRP94 activity can be either inhibited or enhanced.
glucose regulated protein (GRP) 94; insulin-like growth factor; obligate chaperone
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.