Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Study to Determine Levels of Heavy Metals in Cocoa Crops Applied to Inland Areas of Peru: “The case of the Campo Verde-Honoria Tournavista Corridor”

Version 1 : Received: 16 July 2020 / Approved: 16 July 2020 / Online: 16 July 2020 (04:09:54 CEST)

How to cite: Rosales-Huamani, J.A.; Breña-Ore, J.L.; Sespedes-Varkarsel, S.; Huamanchumo de la Cuba, L.; Centeno-Rojas, L.; Otiniano-Zavala, A.; Andrade-Choque, J.; Valverde-Espinoza, S.; Castillo-Sequera, J.L. Study to Determine Levels of Heavy Metals in Cocoa Crops Applied to Inland Areas of Peru: “The case of the Campo Verde-Honoria Tournavista Corridor”. Preprints 2020, 2020070339 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202007.0339.v1). Rosales-Huamani, J.A.; Breña-Ore, J.L.; Sespedes-Varkarsel, S.; Huamanchumo de la Cuba, L.; Centeno-Rojas, L.; Otiniano-Zavala, A.; Andrade-Choque, J.; Valverde-Espinoza, S.; Castillo-Sequera, J.L. Study to Determine Levels of Heavy Metals in Cocoa Crops Applied to Inland Areas of Peru: “The case of the Campo Verde-Honoria Tournavista Corridor”. Preprints 2020, 2020070339 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202007.0339.v1).

Abstract

The presence of heavy metals in cocoa crops is currently a serious problem for farmers and producers in various regions of Peru. Exports of cocoa and its derivatives to European markets are threatened by possible indications of contamination of heavy metals such as Cadmium (Cd) in cocoa beans for export, some at levels higher than those allowed by food regulations established by European Community, which are oriented to consumer protection. The possible sources of cadmium contamination in cocoa crops can be due to natural activities, such as volcanic activities, erosion processes and sedimentation in rocks that contain minerals with a high content of heavy metals (Greenockite, Burnsite, Hawleite, among others), and by anthropogenic activities such as: mining of associated deposits, agriculture (use of fertilizers), smelting of minerals and burning of fossil fuels. Currently, there is no information about contents of heavy metals in areas located in The Campo Verde-Honoria-Tournavista corridor (Ucayali Region and Huanuco Region), due to this, in this work we make a study of this region. A methodology will be used to take cocoa samples from the seed and soil in these areas, and then through chemical analysis, determine the concentrations of heavy metals, using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. As a consequence of this study, we determined and concluded that the concentrations of cadmium obtained in soils are slightly higher than European standards allowed. Therefore, with this information we prepare a geochemical cadmium map in soils for the study area, which will help cocoa producers to identify areas that exceed the allowed cadmium values, in order to comply with standards that European Community demands in relation of concentration levels of heavy metals (Cadmium) in chocolate. In this way, we can carry out in the future a mitigation plan for areas with cadmium problems, which allows to reduce their content in order to export the product without any problem. .

Subject Areas

cocoa seed; cocoa beans; heavy metals; Cadmium

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