Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Fan-shaped Spectrums of Species and Paleopolyploidy for Crossbreeding Evolution

Version 1 : Received: 14 July 2020 / Approved: 15 July 2020 / Online: 15 July 2020 (09:23:24 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 29 November 2021 / Approved: 30 November 2021 / Online: 30 November 2021 (11:04:43 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 2 March 2022 / Approved: 3 March 2022 / Online: 3 March 2022 (10:25:51 CET)

How to cite: Liu, L. Fan-shaped Spectrums of Species and Paleopolyploidy for Crossbreeding Evolution. Preprints 2020, 2020070328. Liu, L. Fan-shaped Spectrums of Species and Paleopolyploidy for Crossbreeding Evolution. Preprints 2020, 2020070328.


Although Darwin‘s evolutionary mutation theory has been widely accepted, many endeavors tried to challenge it. With more and more observation of successful hybridization and hybrids, the sexual isolation between species has become vague. The mechanism of evolution has been expanded from the classical model of evolution to multiple routes of speciation. Furthermore, a fundamental crossbreeding theory has been raised and proved by two lines of evidences: paleopolyploidy and fan-shaped spectrum of species. Ancient genome duplications are widespread throughout eukaryotic lineages, particularly in plants. The genome polyploidization can break through the sexual incompatibility between diploid counterparts to hybridize and produce new species. By comparing characteristics, all species in every taxon, both in the extinct fossil and extant organisms, can be arranged into fan-shaped spectrum according to their similarity: left primitive type-middle advanced type-right primitive type. The species are primitive at the two ends and advanced at the middle. The primitive two species always resemble two types of more primitive species that can be confirmed as their ancestors respectively, and the middle species is half similar to the two ancestors respectively. These suggest that the species in the spectrum come from two different ancestors by crossbreeding and gene combination. As a sum, advanced species originated from crossbreeding of two primitive ancestors, by major method of polyploidization, and proved by results of fan-shaped spectrum of species. Then, sex is the cause, force and opportunity for evolution.


Evolution; Speciation; Crossbreeding; Hybridization; Species spectrum; Polyploidization; Mutation


Biology and Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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