Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Risk Perceptions of Antibiotic Usage and Resistance: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Poultry Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

Version 1 : Received: 8 June 2020 / Approved: 9 June 2020 / Online: 9 June 2020 (09:45:51 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Al-Mustapha, A.I.; Adetunji, V.O.; Heikinheimo, A. Risk Perceptions of Antibiotic Usage and Resistance: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Poultry Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 378. Al-Mustapha, A.I.; Adetunji, V.O.; Heikinheimo, A. Risk Perceptions of Antibiotic Usage and Resistance: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Poultry Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 378.

Journal reference: Antibiotics 2020, 9, 378
DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics9070378

Abstract

There are overwhelming empirical evidences highlighting the contribution of indiscriminate antibiotic usage (ABU) in food animals to the overall burden of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in humans, thus making antibiotic use the main selective pressure driving antibiotic resistance. Social and behavioral perspective on antibiotic use and resistance in poultry is limited. Our study therefore aimed at obtaining information on antibiotic usage, awareness of ABR, and the attitude and perceptions towards prudent antibiotic usage and ABR. A cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted in 125 poultry farms in Kwara state in December 2019. Most farmers (69.6%, n=87/125) were aware of ABR and had satisfactory knowledge about ABR with a mean knowledge score of 3.16±1.47. The age, gender, level of education of farmers, and their flock size were significantly associated with a satisfactory knowledge of ABR (p<0.05). Tertiary education was significantly associated with ABR awareness (OR: 4.7; 95% CI: 0.0690, 0.654; p=0.007) and the ABR knowledge level (OR: 7.8269; 95% CI: 3.2693, 18.7381; p < 0.01). Higher flock size was significantly associated with a satisfactory knowledge of ABR (OR: 9.4551; 95%CI: 3.7928, 23.5707; p<0.01). Most of the poultry farmers (68%) had positive attitudes towards prudent antibiotic use with a mean score of 2.75±0.89. On the contrary, only 32.8% of poultry farmers had a good perception of ABR with a mean perception score of 4.95±1.12. The ABR knowledge level was significantly associated with the perceptions of farmers (p<0.05) but not their attitudes toward ABU and ABR (P=0.083). There was evidence of unprescribed use of antibiotics in poultry and a failure to observe antibiotic withdrawal periods. These constitute a risk of exposure to unacceptable levels of drug residues from poultry products and an increased risk of ABR. Improving education and communication on antibiotic stewardship programs are crucial to prevent the looming antibiotic apocalypse.

Subject Areas

antibiotic usage; antibiotic resistance; poultry; KAP; Kwara; Nigeria

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