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Intracellular Membranes: Conserved Mechanisms of Formation and Regulation Throughout Evolution
: Received: 20 March 2020 / Approved: 23 March 2020 / Online: 23 March 2020 (03:09:35 CET)
: Received: 22 August 2020 / Approved: 25 August 2020 / Online: 25 August 2020 (10:03:25 CEST)
A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.
Journal reference: Microbial Cell Factories 2020, 19, 176
Membrane remodeling and phospholipid biosynthesis are normally tightly regulated to maintain the shape and function of cells. Indeed, different physiological mechanisms ensure a precise coordination between de novo phospholipid biosynthesis and modulation of membrane morphology. Interestingly, the overproduction of certain membrane proteins hijack these regulation networks, leading to the formation of impressive intracellular membrane structures in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The proteins triggering membrane proliferation share two major common features: 1) they promote the formation of highly curved membrane domains and 2) they lead to an enrichment in anionic, cone-shaped phospholipids (cardiolipin or phosphatidic acid) in the newly formed membranes. Taking into account the available examples of membrane proliferation upon protein overproduction, together with the latest biochemical, biophysical and structural data, we explore the relationship between protein synthesis and membrane biogenesis. We propose a mechanism for the formation of these non-physiological intracellular membranes that shares similarities with natural inner membrane structures found in α-proteobacteria, mitochondria and some viruses-infected cells, pointing towards a conserved feature through evolution. We hope that the information discussed in this review will give a better grasp of the biophysical mechanisms behind physiological and induced intracellular membrane proliferation, inspiring new biotechnological applications.
membrane remodeling; membrane biosynthesis, membrane curvature; phospholipids; inner membrane; evolution
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