Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Who Adopts Agroforestry in a Subsistence Economy?

Version 1 : Received: 8 March 2020 / Approved: 9 March 2020 / Online: 9 March 2020 (01:24:35 CET)

How to cite: Dhakal, A.; Rai, R.K. Who Adopts Agroforestry in a Subsistence Economy?. Preprints 2020, 2020030146. Dhakal, A.; Rai, R.K. Who Adopts Agroforestry in a Subsistence Economy?. Preprints 2020, 2020030146.


Land degradation is a critical issue globally putting our future generations at risk. The decrease in farm productivity over the years is evidence of land degradation severity in Nepal. Among the many strategies in place, agroforestry, which is an integrated tree-based farming, is widely recommended to address this productivity issue. This paper thoroughly examines what influences the choice of agroforestry adoption by farmers and what discourages the adoption. For this, a total of 288 households were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Two agroforestry practices were compared with conventional agriculture with the help of the Multinomial Logistic Regression (MNL) model. The likelihood of adoption was found to be influenced by gender; the male-headed households were more likely to adopt the tree-based farming practice. Having a source of off-farm income was positively associated with the adoption decision of farmers. Area of farmland was found being the major constraint to agroforestry adoption for smallholder farmers. Some other variables that affected positively included livestock herd size, provision of extension service, home-to- forest distance, farmers’ group membership and awareness of farmers about environmental benefits of agroforestry. Irrigation was another adoption constraint that the study area farmers were faced with. The households with means of transport and with larger family (household) size were found to be reluctant towards agroforestry adoption. A collective farming practice could be a strategy to engage the smallholder farmers in agroforestry.


conventional agriculture; land degradation; small-holders; multinomial logistic regression; Nepal


Environmental and Earth Sciences, Soil Science

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