Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Virus-Like Particles: Applications in Reverse Vaccinology

Version 1 : Received: 23 January 2020 / Approved: 25 January 2020 / Online: 25 January 2020 (00:55:19 CET)

How to cite: De Ganzó, A.; Pastorini, M.; Borio, C.; Lozano, M.; Goñi, S. Virus-Like Particles: Applications in Reverse Vaccinology. Preprints 2020, 2020010294 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202001.0294.v1). De Ganzó, A.; Pastorini, M.; Borio, C.; Lozano, M.; Goñi, S. Virus-Like Particles: Applications in Reverse Vaccinology. Preprints 2020, 2020010294 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202001.0294.v1).

Abstract

Vaccination has been one of the most successful and the most significant scientific advances in human health and life expectancy all around the globe. The World Health Organization considers that immunization should be recognized as the main component of human health right, due to the fact that vaccination prevents 2.5 million deaths annually (World Health Organization, 2011). The most successful vaccines have been developed using conventional methods that follow the paradigm established by Pasteur: "to isolate, inactivate and inject" the pathogen microorganism and mimic a natural infection. Recently, metagenomics have played an important role in the discovery of new immunogens for vaccine design and the selection of antigens based on genomic information. The main approach that has used this strategy has been called "reverse vaccinology". This promising and arising field allows the screening of the entire potential antigenic repertoire of an organism using predictive bioinformatic tools. Once the antigenic protein or proteins have been selected, they are expressed and purified using molecular cloning and in vitro expression techniques. Following the in vitro production step, they are probed in animal models to evaluate the in vivo protective strength of the immune response. The main aim of this in vivo approach is to evaluate the ability of the immune response to eliminate or neutralize the pathogen at the time of infection. Those antigens capable of generate a specific immune response with neutralizing activity for natural infections are the best candidate vaccines. In this review we summarize the evolution of vaccinology since its inception, with special emphasis on the development of VLPs as vaccine platforms and their future in preventive medicine and we introduce a new recombinant platform for antigen presentation based on Junin virus VLPs (JUNV-VLPs).

Subject Areas

VLPs; vaccines; reverse vaccinology; JUNV; vaccinology

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