Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Ambient Air Pollution and Cigarette Smoking: Co-Drivers of Increased Burden of Lung Cancer in Europe

Version 1 : Received: 8 January 2020 / Approved: 10 January 2020 / Online: 10 January 2020 (04:59:44 CET)

How to cite: Kalubula, M.; Shen, H.; Liu, L. Ambient Air Pollution and Cigarette Smoking: Co-Drivers of Increased Burden of Lung Cancer in Europe. Preprints 2020, 2020010091 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202001.0091.v1). Kalubula, M.; Shen, H.; Liu, L. Ambient Air Pollution and Cigarette Smoking: Co-Drivers of Increased Burden of Lung Cancer in Europe. Preprints 2020, 2020010091 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202001.0091.v1).

Abstract

Background: Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide with 25% of deaths due to lung cancer occurring in Europe. This study therefore sought to assess the burden of lung cancer by country and to evaluate the magnitude of fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and cigarette smoking by country in Europe. Methods: An ecological study nested on the World Health Organization air pollution database 2016 was conducted. We sampled 30 European Countries, with a total of 1625 mean annual samples of Particulate Matter (PM2.5) collected from 1625 designated sites (n = 1625). We further used the ‘World Health Disease Rankings’ database to extract Lung Cancer Morbidity and Mortality Rate by country. We used SAS version 9.4 to indicate the distribution of PM2.5 and Lung Cancer Mortality Rate. Results: Lung cancer Relative Risk (RR) was 1.0 in all never- smokers. RR for Ex-smokers for Adeno carcinoma was 3.5 in males and 1.1 in females, small cell carcinoma was 16.2 in males and 3.8 in females. RR for current smokers for Adeno carcinoma was 8.0 in males and 4.1 in females, small cell carcinoma was 57.9 in males and 18.2 in females. Mean annual PM2.5 by country ranged from 6.01 to 37.28µg/m3 whereas lung cancer mortality rate by country ranged from 19.67 to 54.26 deaths per 100,000 population. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking and exposure to both second hand smoke and high concentration of PM2.5 resulted into increased burden of lung cancer in Europe. Countries should re-strategize to reduce the burden of lung cancer in Europe.

Subject Areas

lung cancer; Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5); secondhand smoking; cigarette smoking

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