Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

The Role of Immune and Oxidative Pathways in Menstrual-Cycle Associated Depressive, Physio-Somatic, Breast and Anxiety Symptoms: Modulation by Sex Hormones

Version 1 : Received: 7 January 2020 / Approved: 9 January 2020 / Online: 9 January 2020 (08:17:43 CET)

How to cite: Roomruangwong, C.; Matsumoto, A.K.; Michelin, A.P.; Semeão, L.D.O.; Pedrão, J.V.D.L.; Moreira, E.G.; Sirivichayakul, S.; Carvalho, A.; Barbosa, D.S.; Maes, M. The Role of Immune and Oxidative Pathways in Menstrual-Cycle Associated Depressive, Physio-Somatic, Breast and Anxiety Symptoms: Modulation by Sex Hormones. Preprints 2020, 2020010077 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202001.0077.v1). Roomruangwong, C.; Matsumoto, A.K.; Michelin, A.P.; Semeão, L.D.O.; Pedrão, J.V.D.L.; Moreira, E.G.; Sirivichayakul, S.; Carvalho, A.; Barbosa, D.S.; Maes, M. The Role of Immune and Oxidative Pathways in Menstrual-Cycle Associated Depressive, Physio-Somatic, Breast and Anxiety Symptoms: Modulation by Sex Hormones. Preprints 2020, 2020010077 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202001.0077.v1).

Abstract

Objective: To examine whether 1) immune and nitro-oxidative stress (IO&NS) biomarkers are associated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS); and 2) changes in IO&NS biomarkers during the menstrual cycle (MC) are associated with PMS symptoms and plasma estradiol and progesterone. Methods: Forty-one women completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) rating scale during 28 consecutive days and MC Associated Syndrome (MCAS) was diagnosed when the summed DRSP score during the MC is > 0.666 percentile. We assayed plasma levels of complement C3 and C4, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), haptoglobin (Hp), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), sulfhydryl (-SH) groups and the activity of paraoxonase (PON)1 at days 7 (D7), 14 (D14), 21 (D21) and 28 (D28) of the MC. Results: All biomarkers, except hsCRP, showed significant alterations during the MC. Arylesterase (AREase) was lowered at D28, while LOOH increased at D14 and C4 at D21 in women with MCAS. The total DRSP score was predicted by the combined effects of C4 (positively) and AREase and malondialdehyde (MDA) (both inversely associated). Progesterone lowered levels of LOOH, AOPP and C3 and estradiol lowered levels of Hp while both sex hormones increased 4-(chloromethyl)phenyl acetate (CMPA)ase and AREase activities and levels of -SH groups. Conclusion: PMS/MCAS is not accompanied by a peripheral inflammatory response. Lowered MDA and antioxidant defenses and increased C4 may play a role in MC-associated symptoms while sex hormones may have a protective effect against oxidative stress toxicity.

Subject Areas

premenstrual syndrome; depression; anxiety; antioxidants; neuro-immune; inflammation; oxidative stress

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