Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Weak Deflection Angle by Asymptotically Flat Black Holes in Horndeski Theory Using Gauss-Bonnet Theorem

Version 1 : Received: 16 November 2019 / Approved: 17 November 2019 / Online: 17 November 2019 (15:28:26 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 28 July 2020 / Approved: 29 July 2020 / Online: 29 July 2020 (04:32:40 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Journal reference: International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics 2020
DOI: 10.1142/S0219887821500031


The principal objective of this project is to investigate the gravitational lensing by asymptotically flat black holes in the framework of Horndeski theory in weak field limits. To achieve this objective, we utilize the Gauss-Bonnet theorem to the optical geometry of asymptotically flat black holes and applying the Gibbons-Werner technique to achieve the deflection angle of photons in weak field limits. Subsequently, we manifest the influence of plasma medium on deflection of photons by asymptotically flat black holes in the context of Horndeski theory. We also examine the graphical impact of deflection angle on asymptotically flat black holes in the background of Horndeski theory in plasma as well as non-plasma medium.


weak gravitational lensing; deflection of light; black hole; deflection angle; Horndeski theory; Gauss-Bonnet theorem


PHYSICAL SCIENCES, General & Theoretical Physics

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 29 July 2020
Commenter: Ali Övgün
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Title is changed. Some typos are corrected.
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