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Finite-Distance Gravitational Deflection of Massive Particles by the Kerr-like Black Hole in the Bumblebee Gravity Model
: Received: 15 November 2019 / Approved: 17 November 2019 / Online: 17 November 2019 (01:46:21 CET)
A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.
Journal reference: Physical Review D 2020, 101, 024040
In this paper, we study the weak gravitational deflection angle of relativistic massive particles by the Kerr-like black hole in the bumblebee gravity model. In particular, we focus on weak field limits and calculate the deflection angle for a receiver and source at a finite distance from the lens. To this end, we use the Gauss-Bonnet theorem of a two-dimensional surface defined by a generalized Jacobi metric. The spacetime is asymptotically non-flat due to the existence of a bumblebee vector field. Thus the deflection angle is modified and can be divided into three parts: the surface integral of the Gaussian curvature, the path integral of a geodesic curvature of the particle ray and the change in the coordinate angle. In addition, we also obtain the same results by defining the deflection angle. The effects of the Lorentz breaking constant on the gravitational lensing are analyzed. We then consider the finite-distance correction for the deflection angle of massive particles.
weak gravitational lensing; Kerr-like black hole; deflection angle; Bumblebee gravity; Gauss-Bonnet theorem
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