Working Paper Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Information Energy Mimics Ʌ and CDM

Version 1 : Received: 30 September 2019 / Approved: 2 October 2019 / Online: 2 October 2019 (06:02:11 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 27 February 2020 / Approved: 28 February 2020 / Online: 28 February 2020 (13:28:05 CET)

How to cite: Gough, M.P. Information Energy Mimics Ʌ and CDM. Preprints 2019, 2019100019 Gough, M.P. Information Energy Mimics Ʌ and CDM. Preprints 2019, 2019100019


Stellar heated gas and dust makes a significant entropic/information energy contribution to the universe. At temperatures ~107 the ~1086 bits are equivalent to ~1070J, equivalent to the energy equivalence of the universe’s ~1053 kg ordinary baryon matter. A survey of stellar mass density measurements shows this dark energy contribution has a constant energy density that effectively mimics a cosmological constant over the redshift range z<1.35. The measurable difference between this information energy and a true cosmological constant is small, with a maximum difference of <2% in Hubble parameter at z~2. As information energy is significant and co-located with hot baryons it produces gravitational effects that resemble dark matter. Information energy is shown to be consistent with the dark matter effects observed in clusters of colliding galaxies (e.g. Bullet Cluster), with dark matter location specified by baryon location and strongest in regions of highest luminosity / temperature. The dark matter fraction measured in galaxy surveys more closely fits an information energy explanation than the fraction expected in the standard ɅCDM model. Information energy provides a solution to the cosmological coincidence problem and also would allow the cosmological constant to take the preferred zero value.


dark energy; dark matter; ʌcdm model


Physical Sciences, Astronomy and Astrophysics

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 28 February 2020
Commenter: Michael Paul Gough
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Revised text with more balanced argument and discussion supported by extra equations. Abstract revised accordingly
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