Peña, F.J.; O’Flaherty, C.; Ortiz Rodríguez, J.M.; Martín Cano, F.E.; Gaitskell-Phillips, G.L.; Gil, M.C.; Ortega Ferrusola, C. Redox Regulation and Oxidative Stress: The Particular Case of the Stallion Spermatozoa. Antioxidants2019, 8, 567.
Peña, F.J.; O’Flaherty, C.; Ortiz Rodríguez, J.M.; Martín Cano, F.E.; Gaitskell-Phillips, G.L.; Gil, M.C.; Ortega Ferrusola, C. Redox Regulation and Oxidative Stress: The Particular Case of the Stallion Spermatozoa. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 567.
Redox regulation and oxidative stress have become areas of major interest in spermatology. Alteration of redox homeostasis is recognized as a significant cause of male factor infertility and is behind the damage that spermatozoa experience after freezing and thawing or conservation in a liquid state. While for a long time, oxidative stress was just considered an overproduction of ROS, nowadays it is considered as a consequence of redox deregulation. Many essential aspects of spermatozoa functionality are redox regulated, with reversible oxidation of thiols in cysteine residues of key proteins acting as an “on-off” switch controlling spermatic function. However, if deregulation occurs, these residues may experience irreversible oxidation and oxidative stress leading to spermatic malfunction and ultimately death. Stallion spermatozoa are “professional producers” of ROS due to their intense mitochondrial activity, and thus sophisticated systems to control redox homeostasis are also characteristic of this species. As a result, combined with the fact that embryos can easily be collected in this species, horses are a good model for the study of redox biology in the spermatozoa and its impact on the embryo.
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