Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Treating Bacterial Infections: One More Mechanism of Action

Version 1 : Received: 13 September 2019 / Approved: 14 September 2019 / Online: 14 September 2019 (19:18:28 CEST)

How to cite: Sawa, T.; Kinoshita, M.; Inoue, K.; Ohara, J.; Moriyama, K. Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Treating Bacterial Infections: One More Mechanism of Action. Preprints 2019, 2019090144 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201909.0144.v1). Sawa, T.; Kinoshita, M.; Inoue, K.; Ohara, J.; Moriyama, K. Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Treating Bacterial Infections: One More Mechanism of Action. Preprints 2019, 2019090144 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201909.0144.v1).

Abstract

The mechanisms underlying the effects of γ-globulin therapy for bacterial infections are thought to involve bacterial cell lysis via complement activation, phagocytosis via bacterial opsonization, toxin neutralization, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, recent advances in the study of pathogenicity in gram-negative bacteria have raised the possibility of an association between γ-globulin and bacterial toxin secretion. Over time, new toxin secretion systems like the type III secretion system have been discovered in many pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. With this system, the bacterial toxins are directly injected into the cytoplasm of the target cell through a special secretory apparatus without any exposure to the extracellular environment and, therefore, with no opportunity for antibodies to neutralize the toxin. However, because antibodies against the V-antigen, which is located on the needle-shaped tip of the bacterial secretion apparatus, can inhibit toxin translocation, this raises the hope that the toxin might be susceptible to antibody targeting. Because multi-drug resistant bacteria are now prevalent, inhibiting this secretion mechanism is attractive as an alternative or adjunctive therapy against lethal bacterial infections. Thus, it would not be unreasonable to define the blocking effect of anti-V-antigen antibodies as the fifth mechanism for immunoglobulin action against bacterial infections.

Subject Areas

immunoglobulin; IVIG; LcrV; PcrV; translocation; type III secretory toxin; type III secretion system; V-antigen

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0


×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.