Preprint Review Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Retrospective and Prospective Look at Aflatoxin Research and Development from a Practical Standpoint

Version 1 : Received: 19 August 2019 / Approved: 20 August 2019 / Online: 20 August 2019 (16:02:13 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 24 September 2019 / Approved: 25 September 2019 / Online: 25 September 2019 (08:00:58 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Benkerroum, N. Retrospective and Prospective Look at Aflatoxin Research and Development from a Practical Standpoint. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3633. Benkerroum, N. Retrospective and Prospective Look at Aflatoxin Research and Development from a Practical Standpoint. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3633.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16193633

Abstract

Among the array of structurally and toxicologically diverse mycotoxins, aflatoxins have attracted the most interest of scientific research due to their high toxicity and incidence in foods and feeds. Despite the undeniable progress made in various aspects related to aflatoxins, the ultimate goal consisting of reducing the associated public health risks worldwide is far from being reached due to multiplicity of social, political, economic, geographic, climatic, and development factors. However, a reasonable degree of health protection is attained in industrialized countries owing to their scientific, administrative, and financial capacities allowing them to use high-tech agricultural management systems. Less fortunate situation exists in equatorial and sub-equatorial developing countries mainly practicing traditional agriculture managed by smallholders for subsistence, and where the climate is suitable for mould growth and aflatoxin production. A situation that worsens by the climatic change being increasingly suitable for aflatoxigenic mold growth and toxin production. Accordingly, it is difficult to harmonize the regulatory standards of aflatoxins worldwide, which prevents agri-foods of developing countries from access to the market of industrialized countries. To tackle the multi-facetted aflatoxin problems, actions should be taken collectively by the international community involving scientific research, technological and social development, environment protection, awareness promotion, etc. International cooperation should foster technology transfer and exchange of pertinent technical information. This review presents the main historical discoveries leading to our present knowledge on aflatoxins and the challenges that should be addressed presently and in the future at various levels to ensure higher health protection for everybody. In short, it aims to elucidate where we come from and where we should go in terms of aflatoxin research/development.

Subject Areas

aflatoxins; liver cancer; public health risk; foods and feeds; control means; climatic change

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 25 September 2019
Commenter: Noreddine Benkerroum
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Revised according to the reviewer comment upon submission to an MDPI journal. The main change being the addition of chemoprevention intervention by using a triterpenoid analog drug (oleanane triterpenoid 1-[2-cyano-3-,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im), starting from line 886 to the end of the section.
Other minor additions were made in the sections on natural and socio-economic challenges.
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