Igelmann, S.; Neubauer, H.A.; Ferbeyre, G. STAT3 and STAT5 Activation in Solid Cancers. Cancers2019, 11, 1428.
Igelmann, S.; Neubauer, H.A.; Ferbeyre, G. STAT3 and STAT5 Activation in Solid Cancers. Cancers 2019, 11, 1428.
The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)3 and 5 are activated by many cytokine receptors to regulate specific gene expression and mitochondrial functions. Their role in cancer is largely context dependent as they can both act as oncogenes and tumor suppressors. We review here the role of STAT3/5 activation in solid cancers and summarize their association to survival in cancer patients. The molecular mechanisms that underpins the oncogenic activity of STAT3/5 signaling includes the regulation of genes that control cell cycle, cell death, inflammation and stemness. In addition, STAT3 mitochondrial functions are required for transformation. On the other hand, several tumor suppressor pathways act on or are activated by STAT3/5 signaling including the p19ARF/p53 pathway, tyrosine phosphatases, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and 3, the sumo ligase PIAS3, the E3 ubiquitin ligase TMF/ARA160 and the miRNAs miR-124 and miR-1181. Cancer mutations and epigenetic alterations may alter the balance between pro-oncogenic and tumor suppressor activities associated to STAT3/5 signaling explaining their context dependent association to tumor progression both in human cancers and animal models.
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