Kunz, L.Y.; Bu, L.; Knott, B.C.; Liu, C.; Nimlos, M.R.; Assary, R.S.; Curtiss, L.A.; Robichaud, D.J.; Kim, S. Theoretical Determination of Size Effects in Zeolite-Catalyzed Alcohol Dehydration. Catalysts2019, 9, 700.
Kunz, L.Y.; Bu, L.; Knott, B.C.; Liu, C.; Nimlos, M.R.; Assary, R.S.; Curtiss, L.A.; Robichaud, D.J.; Kim, S. Theoretical Determination of Size Effects in Zeolite-Catalyzed Alcohol Dehydration. Catalysts 2019, 9, 700.
In the upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors to hydrocarbons, dehydration accomplishes a primary objective of removing oxygen and acidic zeolites represent promising catalysts for dehydration reaction. Here, we utilize density functional theory calculations to estimate adsorption energetics and intrinsic kinetics of alcohol dehydration over H-ZSM-5, H-BEA, and H-AEL zeolites. ONIOM calculations of adsorption energies were observed to be inconsistent when benchmarked against QM/Hartree-Fock and periodic boundary condition calculations. However, reaction coordinate calculations of adsorbed species and transition states were consistent across all levels considered. Comparison of ethanol, iso-propanol (IPA), and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) over these three zeolites allowed for a detailed examination of how confinement impacts reaction mechanisms and kinetics. TAA, seen to proceed via a carbocationic mechanism, was found to have the lowest activation barrier, followed by IPA and then ethanol, both of which dehydrate via a concerted mechanism. Barriers in H-BEA were consistently found to be lower than in H-ZSM-5 and H-AEL, attributed to late transition states and either elevated strain or inaccurately estimating long-range electrostatic interactions in H-AEL, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the diffusivity of these three alcohols in H-ZSM-5 are significantly overestimated by Knudsen diffusion, which will complicate experimental efforts to develop a kinetic model for catalytic fast pyrolysis.
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