Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

About odide: A Friendly and Necessary Ion

Version 1 : Received: 23 July 2019 / Approved: 24 July 2019 / Online: 24 July 2019 (11:59:50 CEST)

How to cite: Alves, M.L.D.; Navarro, A.M. About odide: A Friendly and Necessary Ion. Preprints 2019, 2019070274. Alves, M.L.D.; Navarro, A.M. About odide: A Friendly and Necessary Ion. Preprints 2019, 2019070274.


Iodide is an essential micronutrient present in very small quantities in the human body, with a fundamental action for the adequate synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are critical for cell differentiation, growth and metabolism. In the form of iodide, iodine is widely distributed in the environment, although in an irregular manner, occurring in abundant amounts in the oceans and in coastal areas and scarcely found on islands and mountains. The diet is the main source of iodine, whose intake varies according to the amount present in soil and water and according to eating habits. Governmental policies have been adopted to satisfy and guarantee the necessary daily supply of iodine, such as fortification of industrialized salt for domestic iodine consumption or addition to the bread commonly consumed in a given region, or the offer of iodized oil to the population, or even iodine supplementation through medications. Iodide deficiency is the main avoidable cause of brain damage to fetuses and children, as well as retardation of psychomotor development. Thyroid hormones are almost universally involved in the development and proliferation of fetal neural tissue. Permanent lesions of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum may occur, with loss of, or damage to the brainstem or spinal cord, affecting cortical areas that integrate highly specialized stimuli, which become poorly defined on an anatomical basis, including silent areas of the associative cortex. One of the more significant metabolic problems due to dietary iodine deficiency is the presence of goiter (increased volume of the thyroid gland). Thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent endocrine neoplasia affecting the human species and plasma iodine concentration is related to the development of specific subtypes of this neoplasia. An increased prevalence of follicular carcinoma, a more aggressive tumor, has been observed in areas of iodine deficiency, while the correction of this deficiency is associated with a higher prevalence of papilliferous carcinoma, a less aggressive form. CONCLUSION: An ideal plasma iodide concentration is necessary to insure the proper mental development of fetuses and young children and to minimize the aggressiveness of thyroid cancer from follicular cells in humans.


Iodide, salt iodination, ioduria, iodide deficiency, goiter, thyroid cancer


Medicine and Pharmacology, Dietetics and Nutrition

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