Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Toxin Inactivation in Toxin/Antitoxin Systems

Version 1 : Received: 29 May 2019 / Approved: 31 May 2019 / Online: 31 May 2019 (08:36:38 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.


Toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems are used primarily to inhibit phage, reduce metabolic activity during stress, and maintain genetic elements. Given the extreme toxicity of some of the toxins of these TA systems, we were curious how the cell silences toxins, if the antitoxin is inactivated or when toxins are obtained without antitoxins via horizontal gene transfer. Here we find that the RalR (type I), MqsR (type II), GhoT (type V), and Hha (type VII) toxins are inactivated primarily by a mutation that inactivates the toxin promoter or via the chromosomal mutations iraM and mhpR.


toxin; antitoxin; mutation


Biology and Life Sciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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