# An Alternative to Dark Matter?A Cosmological Model of Galaxy Rotation Using Cosmological Gravity Force, F_{Λ} (ALW)

How to cite:
Perron, J. An Alternative to Dark Matter?A Cosmological Model of Galaxy Rotation Using Cosmological Gravity Force, F_{Λ} (ALW). *Preprints* **2019**, 2019050335 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201905.0335.v1).
Perron, J. An Alternative to Dark Matter?A Cosmological Model of Galaxy Rotation Using Cosmological Gravity Force, FΛ (ALW). Preprints 2019, 2019050335 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201905.0335.v1).

## Abstract

^{-9}), the number of original photons (alphatons) increased at each unit of Planck time and geometrical progression ~n

^{3}, where n is the quotient of cosmic time over Planck time . Then, the primordial number of photons reached a maximum of N~10

^{89}, where it remained constant. It's primordial photons (alphatons) are still present today and represents the essential of the energy contained in the universe via the cosmological constante . Such geometric growth in the number of photons can bring a solution to the horizon problem through exchange and a photon energy volume that is in phase with that of the the volume energy of the universe. The age of the universe in cosmic time that is in line with positive energy conservation (in terms of conventional thermodynamics) and the creation of proton, neutron, electron, and neutrino masses, is ~76 [Gy] (observed . The predicted total mass (p, n, e and n), based on the Maxwell-Juttner relativistic statistical distribution, is ~7x10

^{50 }. The predicted cosmic neutrino mass is ≤ 8.69x10

^{-32}(≤ 48.7 ) if based on observations of SN1987A. The temperature variation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), as measured by Planck, can be said to be partially due to energy variations in the universe (DU/U) during the primordial baryon synthesis (energy jump from the creation of protons and neutrons). In this model, what is usually referred to as dark energy actually corresponds to the energy of the universe that has not been converted to mass, and which acts on the mass created by the energy-mass equivalence principle and the cosmological gravity field, , associated with the cosmological constant, which is high during primordial formation of the galaxies (<1 [Gy]). A look at the Casimir effect makes it possible to estimate a minimum Casimir pressure and thus determine our possible relative position in the universe at cosmic time 0,1813 (t

_{0}/t

_{W}=13,8 /76,1 ). Therefore, from the observed age of 13,8 [Gy], we can derive a possible cosmic age of 76,1 [Gy]. That energy of the universe, when taken into consideration during the formation of the first galaxies (< 1 [Gy]), provides a relatively adequate explanation of the non-Keplerian rotation of galactic masses. Indeed, such residual, non-baryonic energy, when considered in Newton’s gravity equation, adds the term , which can partially explain, without recourse to dark matter, the rotations of some galaxies, such as M33, UGC12591, UGC2885, NGC3198, NGC253, DDO161, UDG44, the MW and the Coma cluster. Today, in the MW, that cosmological gravity force is in the order of 10

^{26}times smaller than the conventional gravity force. The model predicts an acceleration of the mass in the universe (q~ 0,986); the energy associated with curvature is the driving force behind the expansion of the universe, rather than the energy associated with the cosmological constant . An equation to determine expansion is obtained using the energy form of the Friedmann equation relative to Planck power and cosmic time or Planck force acting at the frontier of the universe moving at c. This constant Planck force, from unknown sources, acts everywhere to the expansion of the universe as a stretching effect on the volume. Finally, the model partly explains the value a

_{0}of the MOND theory. Indeed, a

_{0}is not a true constant, but depends on the cosmological constant at the time the great structures were formed (~1 [Gy]), as well as an adjustment of the typical mass and dimension of those great structures, such as galaxies. The constant a

_{0 }is a different expression of the cosmological gravity force as expressed by the cosmological constant, Λ, acting through the energy-mass equivalent during the formation of the structures. It does not put in question the value of G.

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