Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

An Extensive Review of Sunscreen and Suntan Preparations

Version 1 : Received: 29 April 2019 / Approved: 30 April 2019 / Online: 30 April 2019 (11:18:23 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Mohiuddin, A.K. Sunscreen and Suntan Preparations . ARC Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (AJPS) 2019, 5(2), pp. 8-44. doi:10.20431/2455-1538.0502002. Mohiuddin, A.K. Sunscreen and Suntan Preparations . ARC Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (AJPS) 2019, 5(2), pp. 8-44. doi:10.20431/2455-1538.0502002.


The sunscreen industry is achieving remarkable worldwide prominence by responding to the growing need for skin protection with fast-paced innovation. Increased consumer awareness of the harmful effects of sunlight has fueled the demand for improved photo protection. The need for broad-spectrum protection from both UVA and UVB rays has inspired scientists worldwide to research new cosmetic formulations and delivery systems. More effective sunscreen actives, emollients and novel cosmetic and functional ingredients have been regularly added to the formulator’s repertoire. Creativity in innovation has been hindered only by regulatory agencies and patent restrictions worldwide. Familiarity with the current restrictive regulations and patent law infringements has become integral to any research effort attempting to provide improved protection to individuals affected by the sun’s damaging effects. The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photo damaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sun screening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Unlike the situation in Europe where sunscreen ingredients are considered under cosmetics guidelines, the FDA is required to define sunscreens as drugs since they are advertised to prevent sunburn and, more recently, the risk of skin cancer. In the USA, the FDA has been regulating this industry since August 25, 1978, with the publication of the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. Sunscreens are considered drugs and cosmetics and therefore must be governed by the FDA-OTC monograph. With the variety of sunscreen agents used in cosmetic and UV protection products, Australia, Canada, and the European Union (EU) have also developed regulatory protocols on safe sunscreen product use. Unlike the USA though, Australia has approved 34 active sunscreen ingredients and the EU has approved 28 of these ingredients. Current FDA regulations allow labeling of sunscreen products to a maximum of 30þ, despite the many products currently available with numbers as high as 100. From a cosmetic formulation point of view, increasing the SPF number in a product is governed by simple chemical principles.


sunscreen; sunburn; UV Radiation; melanoma; photoaging


Medicine and Pharmacology, Dermatology

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