Working Paper Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Interrogating Hope Theory

Version 1 : Received: 21 March 2019 / Approved: 25 March 2019 / Online: 25 March 2019 (09:53:58 CET)

How to cite: Shivley, J. Interrogating Hope Theory. Preprints 2019, 2019030214 Shivley, J. Interrogating Hope Theory. Preprints 2019, 2019030214


After reviewing foundational literature by Snyder, I will demonstrate how hope theory has been used in psychological interventions and psychiatry, how hope influences learning and medical outcomes, and how hope can be applied to difficult life circumstances. Using this literature review, hope theory will be interrogated. I will argue that hope theory has developed its way through the years to garner many strengths, however a few weaknesses do exist and will be described. I will conclude with recommendations for using hope theory in practice, including the medical field, psychological interventions and counseling, and student development.


interrogating hope theory, hope theory, hope, the hope scale, positive psychology


Medicine and Pharmacology, Psychiatry and Mental Health

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