Chen, C.-H.; Chiang, C.-L. Preparation and Characteristics of an Environmentally Friendly Hyperbranched Flame-Retardant Polyurethane Hybrid Containing Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon. Polymers2019, 11, 720.
Chen, C.-H.; Chiang, C.-L. Preparation and Characteristics of an Environmentally Friendly Hyperbranched Flame-Retardant Polyurethane Hybrid Containing Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon. Polymers 2019, 11, 720.
The NCO functional group of 3-isocyanatoproply triethoxysilane (IPTS) and the OH functional group of DOPO-BQ were used to conduct an addition reaction. Following completion of the reaction, triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) was introduced to conduct a ring-opening reaction. Subsequently, a sol-gel method was used to take place a hydrolysis- condensation reaction on TGIC-IPTS-DOPO-BQ to form a hyperbranched nitrogen–phosphorous–silicon (HBNPSi) flame retardant. This flame retardant was incorporated into a polyurethane (PU) matrix to prepare a hybrid material. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), limiting oxygen index (LOI), UV-VIS spectrophotometry, and Raman analysis were conducted to structure characterization and analyzed transparency, thermal stability, flame retardancy, and residual char to understand the flame retardant mechanism of prepared hybrid materials. After the flame retardant was added, the maximum degradation rate decreased from −36 wt%/min to −17 wt%/min, the integral procedure decomposition temperature (IPDT) increased from 348 ℃ to 488 ℃, and the char yield increased from 0.7 to 8.1 wt%. The aforementioned results verified that thermal stability of PU can be improved after adding HBNPSi. The LOI analysis indicated that the pristine PU was flammable because the LOI of pristine PU was only 19. When the content of added HBNPSi was 40%, the LOI value was 26; thus the PU hybrid became nonflammable.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.