Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Updates on the CDK4/6 Inhibitory Strategy and Combinations in Breast Cancer

Version 1 : Received: 25 February 2019 / Approved: 27 February 2019 / Online: 27 February 2019 (04:48:54 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Sobhani, N.; D’Angelo, A.; Pittacolo, M.; Roviello, G.; Miccoli, A.; Corona, S.P.; Bernocchi, O.; Generali, D.; Otto, T. Updates on the CDK4/6 Inhibitory Strategy and Combinations in Breast Cancer. Cells 2019, 8, 321. Sobhani, N.; D’Angelo, A.; Pittacolo, M.; Roviello, G.; Miccoli, A.; Corona, S.P.; Bernocchi, O.; Generali, D.; Otto, T. Updates on the CDK4/6 Inhibitory Strategy and Combinations in Breast Cancer. Cells 2019, 8, 321.

Journal reference: Cells 2019, 8, 321
DOI: 10.3390/cells8040321

Abstract

Breast Cancer (BC) is the second most common type of cancer worldwide and displays the highest cancer-related mortality among women worldwide. Targeted therapies have revolutionized the way BC has been treated in the last decades improving life expectancies of millions of women. Among the different molecular pathways that have been of interest for the development of targeted therapies are the Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDK). CDK inhibitors are a class of molecules that already exist in nature and those belonging to the INK4 protein family specifically inhibit the CDK4/6 proteins. CDK4/6 inhibitors specifically block the transition from the G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle by dephosphorylation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. In the past four years CDK4/6 inhibitors palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib received their first FDA approval for the treatment of Hormone Receptor (HR)-positive and Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer after showing significant improvements in progression-free survival in the PALOMA-1, MONALEESA-2 and the MONARCH-2 randomized clinical trials, respectively. After the encouraging results from these clinical trials, CDK4/6 inhibitors have also been investigated in the other BC subtypes. In HER2-positive BC, combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with HER2-targeted therapies showed promise in preclinical studies and their clinical evaluation is ongoing. Moreover, in triple-negative BC, CDK4/6 inhibitors efficacy has been investigated in combination with other targeted therapies or immunotherapies. This review summarizes the molecular background and clinical efficacy of CDK4/6 inhibitors as single agents or in combination with other targeted therapies for the treatment of BC. Future directions of ongoing clinical trials and predictive biomarkers will be further debated.

Subject Areas

cyclin-dependent kinases; cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitors; targeted therapies; breast cancer

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