Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Lowered Plasma Steady-State Levels of Progesterone Combined with Declining Progesterone Levels During the Luteal Phase Predict Peri-Menstrual Syndrome and Its Major Subdomains

Version 1 : Received: 8 January 2019 / Approved: 9 January 2019 / Online: 9 January 2019 (12:53:16 CET)

How to cite: Roomruangwong, C.; Carvalho , A.F..; Comhaire, F..; Maes, M. Lowered Plasma Steady-State Levels of Progesterone Combined with Declining Progesterone Levels During the Luteal Phase Predict Peri-Menstrual Syndrome and Its Major Subdomains. Preprints 2019, 2019010085 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201901.0085.v1). Roomruangwong, C.; Carvalho , A.F..; Comhaire, F..; Maes, M. Lowered Plasma Steady-State Levels of Progesterone Combined with Declining Progesterone Levels During the Luteal Phase Predict Peri-Menstrual Syndrome and Its Major Subdomains. Preprints 2019, 2019010085 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201901.0085.v1).

Abstract

Background: It is unknown whether lowered steady state levels of sex hormones coupled with changes in those hormones during the menstrual cycle could be associated with the presence and severity of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).Objective: To examine associations between levels of progesterone and oestradiol during the menstrual cycle and PMS severity considering different diagnostic criteria for PMS.Methods: Forty women aged 18-45 years with a regular menstrual cycle completed the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) for all 28 consecutive days of the menstrual cycle. Blood was sampled at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 to assay oestradiol and progesterone. Results: We developed a new diagnosis of peri-menstrual syndrome, which is characterized by increased DRSP severity in pre and post-menstrual periods and increased scores on the major DRSP dimensions, i.e. depression, physio-somatic symptoms, breast tenderness and appetite, and anxiety. This new diagnosis performed better than classical diagnoses of PMS, including the one presented by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Lowered steady state levels of progesterone, when averaged over the menstrual cycle, together with declining progesterone levels during the luteal phase predict severity of peri-menstrual symptoms. Steady state levels of oestradiol and declining oestradiol levels during the cycle are also related to DRSP severity although most of these effects appeared to be mediated by progesterone. Conclusion: A significant increase in menstrual-cycle related symptoms can best be conceptualized asperi-menstrual syndrome and may result from corpus luteum insufficiency, which may result from suboptimal pre-ovulatory follicular development. Future research should trial Clomiphene citrate (given the first 5 days of the cycle) and a mid-cycle injection of human Chorionic Gonadotrophin in subjects with peri-menstrual syndrome.

Subject Areas

premenstrual syndrome, depression, anxiety, physio-somatic, fatigue, progesterone

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