Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Quantum Space and Thermodynamic Approach to Understanding Cosmic Evolution

Version 1 : Received: 26 December 2018 / Approved: 29 December 2018 / Online: 29 December 2018 (08:45:26 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 21 September 2020 / Approved: 22 September 2020 / Online: 22 September 2020 (07:33:26 CEST)

How to cite: Melendres, C. Quantum Space and Thermodynamic Approach to Understanding Cosmic Evolution. Preprints 2018, 2018120357. Melendres, C. Quantum Space and Thermodynamic Approach to Understanding Cosmic Evolution. Preprints 2018, 2018120357.


We present a thermodynamic approach in modeling the evolution of the universe based on a theory that space consists of energy quanta, the spaceons. From wave-particle duality, they can be treated as an ideal gas. The model is similar to the Big Bang but without Inflation. It provides an insight into the nature of dark energy and dark matter, and an explanation for the accelerated expansion of the universe. The universe started from an atomic size volume of spaceons at very high temperature and pressure. Upon expansion and cooling, phase transitions occurred resulting in the formation of fundamental particles, and matter. These nucleate and grow into stars, galaxies, and clusters due to the action of gravity. From the cooling curve of the universe we constructed a thermodynamic phase diagram of cosmic composition, from which we obtained the correlation between dark energy and the energy of space. Using Friedmann’s equations, our model fits well the WMAP data on cosmic composition with an equation of state parameter, w= -0.7. The dominance of dark energy started at 7.25 x 109 years, in good agreement with BOSS measurements. The expansion of space is attributed to a scalar quantum space field. Dark Matter is identified as a plasma form of matter similar to that which existed during the photon epoch, prior to recombination. The thermodynamics of expansion of the universe was adiabatic and decelerating during the first 7 billion years after the Big Bang; it accelerated thereafter. A negative pressure for Dark Energy is required to sustain the latter. This is consistent with the theory of General Relativity and the law of conservation of energy. We propose a mechanism for the acceleration as due to consolidation of matter forming Dark Energy Stars (DES) and other compact objects. The resulting reduction in gravitational potential energy feeds back energy for the expansion. Space will continue to expand and dark energy will undergo phase transition to a Bose-Einstein condensate, a superfluid form of matter. Self-gravitation can cause a bounce and start a new Big Bang. We show how the interplay of gravitational and space forces leads to a cyclic, maybe eternal, universe.


composition and expansion of the universe; thermodynamics; phase diagram; Quantum Space; spaceons; dark energy; dark matter; cosmological constant; cosmic fluid; Quintessence; Dark Energy stars


Physical Sciences, Space Science

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 22 September 2020
Commenter: Carlos Melendres
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: main text updated
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