Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Theoretical Studies on the Creation of Artificial Magnetic Monopoles

Version 1 : Received: 13 December 2018 / Approved: 17 December 2018 / Online: 17 December 2018 (10:56:22 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 4 September 2021 / Approved: 6 September 2021 / Online: 6 September 2021 (14:21:23 CEST)

How to cite: Ishiguri, S. Theoretical Studies on the Creation of Artificial Magnetic Monopoles. Preprints 2018, 2018120194. Ishiguri, S. Theoretical Studies on the Creation of Artificial Magnetic Monopoles. Preprints 2018, 2018120194.


The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the existence of an artificial magnetic monopole and to introduce new electromagnetic equations by altering an electric field and a magnetic field vectors.As a principle device, a cylindrical condenser is prepared, and a superconducting loop is inserted into it. By this conduction, radial electric fields take a role as the centripetal force and both counterclockwise and clockwise motions are induced. As a result, a stationery wave is formed in which the nodes take a part in creating a monopole as follows.First, employing the Lorentz conservations and because node of the stationary wave has no phases, the momentum k and the vector potential A vanish and instead a magnetic potential appears in order to maintain the Lorentz conservation. This magnetic potential has relationship with an electric potential, and thus consequently, a dependent relationship is obtained between an electric field and a magnetic field vectors. Using this conclusive dependent relationship, we can derive new Maxwell equation assembly which are created by altering the electric field and the magnetic field vectors. In this process, we derive a divergent equation of magnetic fields which is not zero, i.e., the existence of a magnetic monopole. Employing these newly derived Maxwell equation, an electromagnetic wave is derived whose speed is the same as one the existing Maxwell equations provide. As a monopole configuration, this paper discusses the energy gap of the vacuum, which is a result of the Dirac equation and describes a monopole as pairs between two Cooper pairs (i.e. four electrons) whose interaction is a photon. As mentioned, because the total momenta and phases are zero, this paper defines the wave function as the Dirac function and demonstrate the condensation, employing the Bloch’s theorem. Moreover, using the macroscopic basic equations, we retrace the creation of the divergent magnetic field in view of macroscopic phenomenon., which provides results in this paper.In Result section in this paper, we succeeded in demonstrating the distribution of the divergent magnetic field of monopole in terms of both microscopic and macroscopic scales. Furthermore, Discussion section describes properties a magnetic monopole should follow.


Artificial magnetic monopole; new electromagnetic equations; superconducting loop; stationary wave; conservation of momentum; Lorentz conservation; magnetic potential; Dirac equation; energy gap in vacuum; pair of two Cooper pairs


Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 6 September 2021
Commenter: S. Ishiguri
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: (1)Although the conclusive equation (Eq. 9) still remains in the second version, the derivation process of the conclusive equation is revised. By this conduction, it has been clear why the conclusive equation is derived from the proposed device. See section 3.1 in the second version.
(2) In the first version, only the static fields were discussed. In the second version, however, time-dependent equations are similarly derived. Furthermore, these time-dependent equations result in an electromagnetic wave. See section 3.2 in the second version.
(3) The wave function a monopole should follow is derived and thus the state of the condensation is also obtained. See section 3.4 in the second version.
(4) Although the conclusive equation (Eq. 9) still remains as the first version, the simulation results have been reviewed and further simulation results were added. See Result section in the second version.
(5)In Discussion section, some properties a monopole particle should follow were discussed. 
(6)According to the above-mentioned revisions, Abstract and Introduction section were also revised.
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