Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Life Emerged as the “Protein/Metabolism-First” Theory Expects

Version 1 : Received: 27 November 2018 / Approved: 30 November 2018 / Online: 30 November 2018 (07:33:15 CET)

How to cite: Ikehara, K. Life Emerged as the “Protein/Metabolism-First” Theory Expects . Preprints 2018, 2018110620. Ikehara, K. Life Emerged as the “Protein/Metabolism-First” Theory Expects . Preprints 2018, 2018110620.


The origin of life has not been solved as yet, in spit of the time passage more than thirty years from publication of RNA world hypothesis by W. Gilbert (1986), which is based on the “gene/replicator--first” theory. On the contrary, I have proposed [GADV]-protein world hypothesis (GADV hypothesis), assuming that life emerged from [GADV]-protein world, which is grounded on the “protein/metabolism-first” theory. However, two weak points of protein world hypothesis, (i) protein cannot be produced without gene, and (ii) protein cannot be self-replicated, have been frequently pointed out by supporters of RNA world hypothesis. Then, I examined whether the two weak points could be overcome by GADV hypothesis or not. From the results, it was confirmed that (i) [GADV]-protein could be pseudo-replicated in the absence of gene owing to protein 0th-order structure or [GADV]-amino acids, and (ii) the replication ability is not always required from the beginning but it is sufficient to acquire it at some time point until the emergence of life. Thus, it was concluded that life emerged as [GADV]-protein world hypothesis, which is grounded on the “protein/metabolism-first” theory, expects.


gene-first; protein-first; replicator-first; metabolism-first; origin of life; [GADV]-protein world hypothesis; GADV hypothesis; RNA world hypothesis


Biology and Life Sciences, Immunology and Microbiology

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