Preprint Review Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Acute Exacerbation of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Version 1 : Received: 12 November 2018 / Approved: 16 November 2018 / Online: 16 November 2018 (06:46:37 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 18 December 2018 / Approved: 20 December 2018 / Online: 20 December 2018 (08:43:57 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Kishaba, T. Acute Exacerbation of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Medicina 2019, 55, 70. Kishaba, T. Acute Exacerbation of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Medicina 2019, 55, 70.


Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is most common idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. IPF is often seen in elderly men who smoke. Diagnosis of IPF requires integration of a detailed clinical history, specific physical examination, laboratory findings, pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest, and histopathology. IPF has a heterogeneous clinical course, from an asymptomatic stable state to progressive respiratory failure or acute exacerbation (AE). AE of IPF has several important differential diagnoses, such as heart failure and volume overload. The International working project proposed new criteria of AE of IPF in 2016 dividing it into triggered and idiopathic AE. On the basis of these criteria, physicians can detect AE of IPF more easily. The recent international IPF guideline emphasized the utility of chest HRCT. In addition, two anti-fibrotic agents have become available. We should attend not only to management of AE, but also to its prevention. The diagnostic process, laboratory findings, typical chest imaging, management and prognosis of AE are comprehensively reviewed.


acute exacerbation; consolidation: GGO; HRCT; idiopathic; IPF; LDH; nintedanib; Pirfenidone; triggered


Medicine and Pharmacology, Internal Medicine

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