Imam, A.; Sulaiman, N.A.; Oyewole, A.L.; Chengetanai, S.; Williams, V.; Ajibola, M.I.; Folarin, R.O.; Muhammad, A.S.; Shittu, S.-T.; Ajao, M.S. Chlorpyrifos- and Dichlorvos-Induced Oxidative and Neurogenic Damage Elicits Neuro-Cognitive Deficits and Increases Anxiety-Like Behavior in Wild-Type Rats. Toxics2018, 6, 71.
Imam, A.; Sulaiman, N.A.; Oyewole, A.L.; Chengetanai, S.; Williams, V.; Ajibola, M.I.; Folarin, R.O.; Muhammad, A.S.; Shittu, S.-T.; Ajao, M.S. Chlorpyrifos- and Dichlorvos-Induced Oxidative and Neurogenic Damage Elicits Neuro-Cognitive Deficits and Increases Anxiety-Like Behavior in Wild-Type Rats. Toxics 2018, 6, 71.
The mechanization of agricultural activities has led to indiscriminate deposition of toxic xenobiotics, including organophosphates in the biomes, and this has led to intoxication characterized with deleterious oxidative and neuronal changes. This study investigated the consequences of oxidative and neurogenic disruptions that follow exposure to two organophosphates, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and dichlorvos (DDVP) on neuro-cognitive performance and anxiety-like behaviors in rats Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats (150 – 170g) were randomly divided into 4 groups, orally exposed to normal saline (NS), DDVP (8.8mg/kg), CPF (14.9mg/kg) and DDVP+CPF for 14 consecutive days. On day 10 of exposures, anxiety-like behaviors and amygdala dependent fear learning were assessed using Open Field and Elevated Plus Maze paradigms respectively, while spatial working memory was assessed on day 14 in the Morris water maze paradigm, following 3 training trials each on days 11, 12 and 13. On day 15, the rats were euthanized, and their brains excised, hippocampus and amygdala removed, 5 of which were homogenized and centrifuged to analyze nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, total reactive oxygen species (ROS), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and the other three processed for histology (cresyl violet stain) and proliferative marker (Ki67 immunohistochemistry). Marked (p≤0.05) loss in body weight, AChE depletion, and overproduction of both NO and ROS were observed after repeated exposure to individual and combined doses of CPF and DDVP. Insults from DDVP exposure appeared more severe owing to the observed greater losses in the body weights of exposed rats. There was also a significant (p≤0.05) effect on the cognitive behaviors recorded from the exposed rats, and these deficits were related to the oxidative damage and neurogenic cell loss in the hippocampus and the amygdala of the exposed rats. Taken together, these results provided an insight that oxidative and neurogenic damages are central to the severity of neuro-cognitive dysfunction and increased anxiety-like behaviors that follow organophosphate poisoning.
oxidative damage; organophosphates; neurotoxicity; spatial working memory; anxiety-related behaviors
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