: Received: 28 August 2018 / Approved: 28 August 2018 / Online: 28 August 2018 (10:05:54 CEST)
: Received: 29 August 2018 / Approved: 5 September 2018 / Online: 5 September 2018 (10:31:23 CEST)
Saha, P.; Johny, E.; Dangi, A.; Shinde, S.; Brake, S.; Eapen, M.S.; Sohal, S.S.; Naidu, V.; Sharma, P. Impact of Maternal Air Pollution Exposure on Children’s Lung Health: An Indian Perspective. Toxics2018, 6, 68.
Saha, P.; Johny, E.; Dangi, A.; Shinde, S.; Brake, S.; Eapen, M.S.; Sohal, S.S.; Naidu, V.; Sharma, P. Impact of Maternal Air Pollution Exposure on Children’s Lung Health: An Indian Perspective. Toxics 2018, 6, 68.
Air pollution has become a growing invisible killer in recent years and is major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. India stands 10th among the highly polluted countries with an average PM10 level of 134μg/m3 per year. It is also reported that 99% of India's population comes across air pollution level that exceed the World Health Organization Air Quality Guideline (AQG), PM2.5 permissible levels of 10 μg/m3. Maternal exposure to air pollution has a serious health outcome to the offspring because it can affect embryonic phases of development during the gestation period. Fetus is more prone to air pollution effect during embryonic developmental phases due to oxidative stress as antioxidant mechanisms are lacking at that stage. Any injury during this vulnerable period (embryonic phase) will have long-term impact on offspring health both in early and later in life. Epidemiological studies have revealed that maternal exposure to air pollution increases the risk of developing airways disease in offspring due to impaired lung development in utero. In this review, we discuss cellular mechanisms involved in maternal exposure to air pollution and how it can impact development of airways disease in offspring. Better understanding of these mechanisms in context of maternal exposure to air pollution can offer newer avenue to prevent development of airways disease in offspring.
PM, air pollution, maternal exposure, airways disease
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