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Design and Implementation of Respiration Rate Measurement System Using Information Filter on Embedded Device
: Received: 8 August 2018 / Approved: 8 August 2018 / Online: 8 August 2018 (06:09:31 CEST)
A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.
Journal reference: Sensors 2018
In this work, an algorithm was developed to measure the respiration rate for an embedded device that can be used by a field robot for relief operation. With this algorithm, the rate measurement was calculated based on direct influences of respiratory-induced intensity variation (RIIV) on blood flow in cardiovascular pathways. For that, a photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensor was used to determine changes in heartbeat frequencies. The PPG sensor readings were filtered using an Information Filter and a Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to determine the state of RIIV. With a relatively light initialization, the information filter can estimate unknown variables based on a series of measurements containing noise and other inaccuraties. Therefore, this filter is suitable for application on an embedded device. For faster calculation time in the implementation, the FFT analysis was calculated only for a major peak in the frequency domain. Test and measurement of respiration rate was conducted based on the device algorithm and spirometer. Heartbeat measurement was also evaluated by comparing the heartbeat data of the PPG sensor and the medical tool kit. Based on the test, the implemented algorithm can measure respiration rate with about 80% accuracy compared with the spirometer.
photoplethysmography (PPG); respiration rate; information filter
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